Frequencies for equal-tempered scale, A 4 = 432 Hz Other tuning choices, A 4 = 432 : 434 : 436 : 438 : 440 : 442 : 444 : 446 : Speed of Sound = 345 m/s = 1130 ft/s = 770 miles/hr More about Speed of Sound (“Middle C” is C 4) Note To Physics of Music Notes
Musical note. Jump to navigation Jump to search. In music, a note is the pitch and duration of a sound, and also its representation in musical notation (♪, ♩). A note can also represent a To find the frequency of a note below A4, the value of n is negative.
The note, A4 (which has other names in different standards) has been used for some years, widely set to 435Hz. In the 1920s and 30s, A=440Hz was standardized by the American Standards Association. Some standard is needed for musical instrument makers to know how big to make their instruments.
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Frequencies for equal-tempered scale, A 4 = 440 Hz Other tuning choices, A 4 = . 432 : 434 : 436 : 438 : 440 : 442 : 444 : 446 : Speed of Sound = 345 m/s = 1130 ft/s = 770 miles/hr
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Why do musicians use concert A, the A above middle C, as the standard pitch reference for tuning? Various national and international standards define the frequency of this note. For example, ISO 16 specifies that musical instruments should be tuned such that A4 is 440 Hz.
Had to do some digging for this one. First off, some informed speculation: A, of course, is the first letter in the alphabet, so its as good a place as any to define a standard. Plus, as you say, it is one of the open strings in common on all string instruments (along with D and G). The A above middle C is also a relatively centrally-located pitch, accessible to a range instruments. An octave lower would have been inaccessible to flutes and oboes (and not an open string). To expand on this: String instruments are relatively easy to retune, but also relatively quick to go out of tune (especially when strung with gut strings), so they should tune to the more stable wind instruments. The oboe was one of the first wind instruments to be regularly added to the orchestra (in the Baroque period), and, for whatever reason , it is now used as the pitch standard ( there’s another good question ) . Oboes can’t hit G3, therefore, we have the following set of constraints: Open string on violin: G3, D4, A4, E5 Also an open string on viola & cello(8vb): G3, D4, A4 (no high E string) Also available on the oboe: D4, A4 (no low G) In a “comfortable” range on the oboe: A4(*) (*) I am not an oboist, but I’m sort of assuming here that, at least on early instruments, the D4, which was the second-to-lowest note on the oboe, might have been a bit harsh sounding. I found a quote from Berlioz’ Treatise on Orchestration which agrees with this notion: “The lower notes of the oboe, which sound ugly when exposed, may be suitable in certain harmonies of an eerie and sorrowful character” At any rate, I think the answer to your question will lie in discovering why the oboe is used as the reference pitch . Presumably, at least in the early Baroque, it would have been the continuo harpsichord (or organ) providing this reference, so maybe this shift coincided with the disappearance of continuo in the Classical era? Some additional historical information that may be relevant: In the early 6th century, when Boethius lists all the note names by letter , he starts (unsurprisingly!) with A as the lowest pitch. This presumably set a precedent for using A as a reference pitch. In 1711, British trumpeter John Shore invented the tuning fork which allowed accurate tuning to a reference pitch. He even gave one to Handel, with a pitch of C=512Hz , corresponding to your scientific pitch. In 1834, Johann Heinrich Scheibler , a silk manufacturer and acoustics researcher, invented a “tonometer” for accurately measuring pitches, based on an array of fifty-two tuning forks, spanning a range of pitches fro A3 to A4. Why did he choose A? I don’t know! But this device allowed him to study a range of tunings in use at the time. He describes his tonometer in detail in Der Physikalische Und Musikalische Tonmesser , which is apparently available on amazon , if you fancy original sources and can read German. Based on his studies, he recommended A4=440 to the Congress of Physicists in Stuttgart in 1834, which they accepted. The Streicher piano company also adopted this standard, manufacturing pianos with “440” stamped on the label. This wasn’t the first attempt at standardized pitch, but due to Scheibler’s tonometer, it was likely the most accurately measured standard up to that point. Nor would it be the last word in tuning; the French government passed a law on Feb. 16, 1859 requiring A=435, or “Diapason Normal” which would become widely adopted internationally. For more reading: http://www.dolmetsch.com/musictheory27.htm (contains a chart of various pitch references throughout time, including Stuttgart’s decision) http://drjazz.ca/musicians/pitchhistory.html (contains more information on Scheibler, and the history of tuning forks and A=440)Best answer · 22I think there are two questions here: Why A? Why A=440? The first is reasonably answered – to tune a string instrument with no frets, the tuning note needs to be that of an open string, which limits it to G, D, A or E (violin). It is not suprising that A became the standard. The A=440 question is far less easy to answer. I play early music (mainly recorders), and to cover all early music I would need a set of recorders at renaissance pitch (A=415), a set at baroque pitch (A=440) and a set at French Baroque pitch (A=466). Considering that at a minimum a set is 4 wooden instruments, the outlay is not insignificant. Evidently the standard pitch of orchestras has been creeping upwards; A=446 is not unheard of. In the 1960s, brass bands were pitched about a quarter tone sharper than A=440 (as well as most instruments being Bb, so 3/4 of a tone below concert pitch). Most bands decided to lower their instruments to (B flat) concert pitch by adding extra tubing, but this ruined the tone of many good instruments. But I think all modern brass instruments are pitched at (B flat) concert pitch. So why A=440?? I don’t think there is a definitive answer.3I have played for 20 years and have been singing a lot I have come to the conclusion that 440hz is not good for singing at the top of your range That is why the diapason standard was set at 435Hz back in 1859. Orchesters/concert halls wanted to go higher to create more brightness and cut (loudness) but limited the singers ability to get a great sounding high belt.. A lot of strain happens from 440Hz and above if you sing within your passaggio.. 430Hz to 435Hz seems to be the best range for singing.. 430Hz is dark and chesty,, 435Hz has just the correct amount of mix for rock and pop without messing up the passaggio I am fairly deep baritone and the E4 note has always been tough at 440Hz.. needs a shift of register.. At 432Hz the E4 note can be sung naturally without changing register before the next note (F4).. Why we never qustioned the 440Hz standard is beyond me yes orchesters sound brighter and more exited but 432-434Hz is so much smoother and grandious..
The high connected headtone C5 of a tenor sounds better below 436Hz than up at 440Hz.. Even Pavarotti will have orchesters tuned around 440-442Hz down to 438Hz,, He would probable prefer lower like the Diapason normal (435Hz) but the orchesters instruments can’t calibrate much lower as they are made for concert pitch (either 440Hz or 442Hz)..0
Feb 21, 2012 · A440 440 440.00 Hz hertz Music Pitch Frequency Musical Note Notes Sound Audio Tone Tune Tuning Instrument Tuner Concert Guitar Mandolin Violin Viola Cello Bass Category Music
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The standard pitch tuning is A4 (A above middle C) − in German-speaking countries it is called a’. The notes have different names. The German system is used also in many other countries, as there are e.g. Poland, Czech Republic, and Russia.
Music Notation 2 – page 1 Music Notation 2 Music Fundamentals 14-119-T In the last lecture, we discovered the musical alphabet, and how a clef defines where a note is posi-tioned in the staff. More on the Octave: At this point, you are probably asking If we have labeled A4 as 440Hz, then the next octave up, or A5, cycles 880 times per
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